Dog Seizures: Types, Causes, Treatments

Reviewed By Tom •  Updated: 06/25/23 •  6 min read
The contents of the website, such as text, graphics, images, and other material contained on this site (“Content”) are for informational purposes only. The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional veterinarian advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your veterinarian with any questions you may have regarding the medical condition of your pet. Never disregard professional advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website! Some of the links in this post are affiliate links. This means if you click on the link and purchase this item or service, we will receive an affiliate commission at no extra cost to you. All opinions remain our own.

Canine seizures are a common and potentially serious issue for a large number of dogs.

Online Veterinary 24/7
Chat With A Veterinarian Online

Connect with a verified veterinarian in minutes. Licensed vets are available 24/7 to answer your questions. No need to worry about your furry family member.

Dogs can be affected by seizures in different ways, and there are several diagnosable conditions involving seizures as a symptom.

Let’s go through the different types of seizures in dogs – what they look like, what causes them, and what owners can do to treat canine seizures and care for their dogs’ health.

Common causes of seizures in dogs

Dog Seizures: Types, Causes, Treatments

Seizures are a relatively common neurological disorder in dogs, and can be a cause of concern for pet owners. Seizures can range in severity and duration, and may be caused by a variety of factors, including underlying medical conditions, genetic predisposition, exposure to toxins, or even unknown causes. The most common causes are:

Types of seizures in dogs

Generalized seizures:

These are the most common type of seizures in dogs and involve the entire brain. Generalized seizures can cause the dog to fall over, become stiff, and experience convulsions. They may also lose consciousness and exhibit abnormal behaviors such as salivating, urinating, or defecating.

Focal seizures:

Focal seizures, also known as partial seizures, involve only a specific area of the brain. These seizures may cause abnormal movements or behaviors in one part of the body, such as twitching in the face or leg.

Status epilepticus:

This is a medical emergency that occurs when a seizure lasts for more than five minutes or when the dog has multiple seizures without regaining consciousness in between. Status epilepticus can cause brain damage or even be fatal if left untreated.

Cluster seizures:

Cluster seizures refer to a series of seizures that occur in a short period of time, typically within 24 hours.

Psychomotor seizures:

Psychomotor seizures involve abnormal behaviors such as excessive licking or biting, fly-catching, or tail-chasing. These behaviors can occur without convulsions or loss of consciousness.

Common medications for treating canine seizures

There are several medications that are commonly used to manage seizures in dogs with epilepsy. The most commonly prescribed medications for canine epilepsy include:

Phenobarbital: This is one of the oldest and most widely used medications for controlling seizures in dogs. It works by increasing the threshold at which seizures are triggered in the brain. Phenobarbital is a long-acting medication that is usually given twice a day.

Potassium bromide: This medication is used as an alternative to phenobarbital or in combination with it. It works by reducing the electrical activity in the brain that triggers seizures. Potassium bromide is usually given once or twice a day.

Levetiracetam: This medication is a newer drug that is often used in combination with other medications to control seizures in dogs. It works by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters that are involved in seizures. Levetiracetam is given two to three times a day.

Zonisamide: This is another newer medication that is used in combination with other drugs to control seizures in dogs. It works by blocking calcium and sodium channels in the brain that are involved in the generation of seizures. Zonisamide is usually given once or twice a day.

CBD oil: While still in its early research stages, CBD as a treatment for dogs with seizures has shown potential. In a 2019 study published in the journal ‘Pet Behavior Science’ found that CBD oil reduced the frequency and severity of seizures in 89% of the dogs studied, with no adverse effects reported. However, as with any medication it is important to speak with your veterinarian first. If they give the go ahead, we recommend checking out this review article

In the end, the right medication will depend on the individual dog’s needs and responses to the medication. Your veterinarian will work with you to develop a treatment plan that is tailored to your dog’s specific needs and monitor your dog’s progress to adjust the dosage or medication as needed.

What to do when your dog is having a seizure

If your dog just had a seizure, it is important to remain calm and take the following steps:

Keep your dog safe: During a seizure, dogs can injure themselves by falling or hitting objects. Move any nearby objects that could be harmful to your dog and gently guide them to a safe area.

Time the seizure: Note the time when the seizure begins and how long it lasts. Seizures can feel like they last a long time, but they usually last only a few minutes.

Do not restrain your dog: It is important to let the seizure run its course and not try to restrain or hold your dog down, as this can increase the risk of injury.

Monitor your dog: After the seizure, monitor your dog closely and note any changes in behavior or signs of illness. Seizures can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, and it is important to seek veterinary care to determine the cause of the seizure and appropriate treatment.

Contact your veterinarian: If this is your dog’s first seizure or if the seizure lasts longer than five minutes or if your dog has multiple seizures within 24 hours, contact your veterinarian immediately. They may recommend bringing your dog in for an examination or may provide guidance on how to manage the seizure.

Seizures in dogs can be a frightening and concerning experience for pet owners. However, by understanding the different types and causes of seizures, as well as the various treatment options available, pet owners can take proactive steps to manage the condition and provide their furry friends with the best possible care.

While there is no surefire way to prevent seizures in dogs, proper management and treatment can help minimize the frequency and severity of seizures, while also improving the overall quality of life for affected dogs.

(Visited 42 times, 1 visits today)
Online Veterinary 24/7
Chat With A Veterinarian Online

Connect with a verified veterinarian in minutes. Licensed vets are available 24/7 to answer your questions. No need to worry about your furry family member.


Tom has always loved to write since he was little - he wanted to be either a writer or a veterinary doctor, but he ended up being a professional writer while most of his works are based on animals. He was born in San Francisco but later moved to Texas to continue his job as a writer. He graduated from the University of San Francisco where he studied biotechnology. He is happily married and a soon to be father!